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dc.contributor.authorSánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E
dc.contributor.authorBartolomé, Mónica 
dc.contributor.authorCañas, Ana I 
dc.contributor.authorHuetos, Olga 
dc.contributor.authorNavarro Rivas, Carmen 
dc.contributor.authorRodríguez, A Carolina
dc.contributor.authorArribas, Misericordia
dc.contributor.authorEsteban, Marta 
dc.contributor.authorLópez-Herranz, Ana 
dc.contributor.authorCastaño, Argelia
dc.identifier.citationEnviron Res. 2015 Jan;136:227-33.es_ES
dc.description.abstractAnti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50 μg/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500 μg/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThe research was supported by Spanish Ministry of Agriculture,Food and Environment (MAGRAMA) and Instituto de Salud CarlosIII, Ministry of Economy and Competitiviness (MINECO) (SEG 1251/07 and SEG 1112/10 Projects)es_ES
dc.relation.isversionofPublisher's versiones_ES
dc.subjectHuman biomonitoringes_ES
dc.subjectSecond-hand smoke (SHS)es_ES
dc.subjectSmoke-free policyes_ES
dc.subject.meshCadmium es_ES
dc.subject.meshCotinine es_ES
dc.subject.meshFemale es_ES
dc.subject.meshHumans es_ES
dc.subject.meshMale es_ES
dc.subject.meshSmoking es_ES
dc.subject.meshSpain es_ES
dc.titleAnti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levelses_ES
dc.rights.licenseAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internacional*
dc.contributor.funderMinisterio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente
dc.contributor.funderInstituto de Salud Carlos III - ISCIII
dc.contributor.funderMinisterio de Economía y Competitividad (España)
dc.identifier.journalEnvironmental researches_ES
dc.repisalud.centroISCIII::Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambientales_ES
dc.relation.projectIDinfo:eu_repo/grantAgreement/ES/SEG 1251/07es_ES
dc.relation.projectIDinfo:eu_repo/grantAgreement/ES/SEG 1112/10es_ES

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internacional
This item is licensed under a: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internacional